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Last Updated: Jul 30, 2011 07:19:55

The following rulings are derived from the Hanafi Madhab using Imam Shurunbullali's classical fiqh book Nur-al-Ida.

Fasting is to refrain and abstain during the day from allowing anything to enter into the stomach through the mouth, nose, or cavity in the body, whether intentionally or by mistake.

The month of Ramadan consists of fasting that is compulsory (i.e. Fard). The cause, which obligates the fasting of Ramadan, is one’s presence in the time that is correct to fast. Therefore every day in Ramadan is a reason obligating one to fast on that particular day.

Conditions that render it obligatory

1.One must be a Muslim.
2.To have intellect and sanity.
3.To be mature.
4.To have knowledge that fasting is obligatory.

Conditions that obligate one to fast during Ramadan

1.Free from ill health.
2.Free from menstrual or postnatal bleeding.
3.Free from travel (fasting isn’t compulsory as a traveller, though if it won’t affect you during your travels it is recommended to fast).

During the month of Ramadan the fasting does not require a person to be specific in the intention as Allah Almighty has made it Fard upon us. In layman’s terms the fast in Ramadan is valid even if one doesn’t make an intention to fast and if one wakes up late (as long as it is a short period before noontime). Hence it is not a condition to be specific in the intention, or to make it at night prior to dawn. For example Amar wakes up at 6am, 3 hours after sehri, if at this point Amar doesn’t eat anything then his fast is valid.

That which doesn’t nullify the fast

1.Eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse forgetfully.
2.If an orgasm occurs as a result of just looking or thinking about the sexual area of a female.
3.Applying oil to the body.
6.Intention to break your fast, but then this intention isn’t carried out.
7.Passive smoking.
8.Wet dreams.
9.Swallowing mucus or saliva.
10.Vomiting unintentionally.
11.Intentionally vomiting less than a mouthful.
12.Water entering the ear.

That which nullifies the fast and requires a make-up day as well as Expiation (kaffara)

The following have to be done intentionally, willingly and without being compelled to do so.

1.Having sexual intercourse.
2.Eating and drinking.
3.Swallowing rainwater.
4.Eating raw meat.
5.Eating fat.
6.Eating jerked meat.
7.Eating a seed of wheat and chewing it.
8.Swallowing a seed of grain.
9.Eating beneficial soil.
10.Swallowing the saliva of a wife or a friend.
11.Eating a small amount of salt.

The Expiation (kaffara)

If a person violates the rules in the day of Ramadan, then he has made himself liable for expiation. Expiation has three levels:

1.Free a slave. If one cannot do this then he must;
2.Fast 2 months consecutively. If one cannot do this then he must;
3.Feed 60 poor people to lunch and dinner at their respective times so that they are content.

That which nullifies the fast without requires expiation

The following will break the fast and a make-up day will be needed still:

1.Eating raw rice.
2.Eating a lot of salt.
3.Eating the stone of a fruit.
4.Taking an enema or pouring drops through the nose.
5.Swallowing by accident rain or snow water.
6.Accidently swallowing water whilst gargling.
7.A married women  breaking her fast for fear of falling ill and thus unable to complete her duties.
8.Eating on purpose after eating forgetfully.
9.If one has sexual intercourse forgetfully and then after remembering continues to have sexual intercourse intentionally.
10.An orgasm caused by rubbing the genitals between the thigh of someone or by rubbing them on the abdomen of someone, or due to kissing (doesn’t include the use of tongues), touching or masturbation.
11.Swallowing food that is stuck between the teeth as long as it is less than the size of a chickpea.

If a person breaks his fast, it is necessary (Wajib) to abstain from eating for the remainder of the day. 

Disliked actions when fasting

1.Tasting something with no reason, without allowing it to enter the insides.
2.To chew without need.
3.Kissing and caressing when fear of breaking fast is apparent.
4.Gathering saliva in the mouth and then swallowing it.
5.Performing any actions that will weaken one from fasting, e.g. cupping, acupuncture etc.

Actions that are not disliked during fasting

1.Kissing and caressing without fear of breaking fast.
2.Rubbing oil on the moustache.
3.Applying surma.
4.Cupping without fear of weakness.
5.Using miswak.
6.Rinsing the mouth and nose.

Recommended actions when fasting

2.To delay the pre-dawn mean (sehri) to just before the start of Fajr.
3.To break the fast hastily when there is clear signs and no obstructions in the sky during dawn

Prayer / Salah / Namaz Times: Bradford
Thursday 25 April 2024 11:58
15 Shawwal 1445
Salah Start Jama'ah
al-Fajr: 3.44 5.00
Sunrise 5.46 n/a
al-Dhur (Juma'ah) 13.06 14.00
al-Asr 18.05 18.30
al-Maghrib 20.31 20.31
al-Isha 21.31 22.00